A novel mutation in nuclear prelamin a recognition factor-like causes diffuse pulmonary arteriovenous malformations

Authors: Liu, Hong-zhou; Du, Chun-xian; Luo, Jing; Qiu, Xue-ping; Li, Zu-hua; Lou, Qi-yong; Yin, Zhan; Zheng, Fang

Two daughters in a Chinese consanguineous family were diagnosed as diffuse pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) and screened using whole exome sequencing (WES) and copy number variations (CNVs) chips. Though no mutation was found in the established causative genes of capillary malformation-AVMs (CM-AVMs) or PAVMs, Ser161Ile (hg19 NM_022493 c.482G>T) mutation in nuclear prelamin A recognition factor-like (NARFL) was identified. Ser161Ile mutation in NARFL conservation region was predicted to be deleterious and absent in 500 population controls and Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) Database. And there was a dosage effect of the mutation on mRNA levels among family members and population controls, consistent with the instability of mutant mRNA in vitro. Accordingly, in lung tissue of the proband, NARFL protein expression was reduced but Fe3+ was overloaded with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) overexpression. Furthermore, NARFL-knockdown cell lines demonstrated decreased activity of cytosolic aconitase, while NARFL-knockout zebrafish presented ectopic subintestinal vessels sprouts and upregulated VEGF. So we concluded that the Ser161Ile mutant induced NARFL deficiency and eventually diffuse PAVMs probably through VEGF pathway. In a word, we detected a functional mutation in NARFL, which might be the pathogenic gene in this pedigree.

Volume: 8
Issue: 11
Pages: 2708 - 2718
Published Online: 2016
Full Text Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.13156